Kashmir the State of Jammu and Kashmir was the most important State in the sub-continent. It is situated in the northern part of lndo-Pak sub-continent. It was the biggest State in India and occupied 84,471 sq. miles of territory. It has its boundaries with Tibet, Russia and Afghanistan placed it in a great strategic position. T e total population of the State, according to 1941 census, was a out 4,000,000 which comprised majority of Muslims in every province of, the valley. The State of Jammu and Kashmir was ruled by a Dogra ruler Gulab Singh. The Dogra dynasty had purchase state from the government- 1846 for I.5 million to Gulab Singh and his successors had established a despotic regime and ruled the State in an autocratic manner. The Muslims,. in particular, were ruthlessly subjected to the most inhuman treatment.. They were heavily taxed and made to Use a very poor life. The Hindus were given preference in Government jobs over the Muslims. Cruel punishments were awarded to the Muslim inhabitants for a simple and minor breach of law. The first battle for the freedom of State was fought in 1930. It was in consequence to tie repressive and arbitrary rule of Dogra dynasty.

The movement was organized and led by Sheikh Abdullah and Ch. Ghulam Abbas from the platform of Kashmir Muslim Conference. The movement was quelled with the assistance of the British Government. The Maharaja, as usual, adopted repressive and. tyrannical measures to suppress the movement. There were large scale arrests and firings. Muslims from the neighboring areas entered Kashmir to help their Muslim brethren. A Commission under Sir Gracy was appointed which recommended few constitutional reforms.

 Geographically the State is a continuation of the plains of West Pakistan into mountains. The rivers Indus, Jhelum and Chenab, which are the source. of life for Pakistan, flow into Pakistan from the State of Jammu and Kashmir making it a whole geographical unit. The State had its road and rail links with Pakistan. Its imports and exports moved through Pakistan. Timber which was State's most important and lucrative source of revenue, was exported by being floated down the rivers into Pakistan. The cultural connections between the Muslims of the State and that to Pakistan are so close as to make them virtually identical. The destiny of Kashmir and West Pakistan is linked together by nature and by all possible interests such as economic, religious, cultural and strategic. When the sub-continent was divided, the State was ruled by Maharaja Hari Singh who too was a tyrannical ruler. The people of Kashmir, at the time of partition, felt that in view of Muslim majority population the State 106 Pakistan Affairs ruler would accede to Pakistan • and they would soon be relieved from the oppressive Dogra rule. The Maharaja came • under immense pressure from the public to announce the State's accession to Pakistan at an early date. The Hindu ruler did not want to accede to Pakistan. In fact he wanted to accede to India in spite of all the factors favoring State's accession to Pakistan. When the public pressure increased. the Hindu ruler, order to divert the attention of the people, concluded a treaty with Pakistan. The Government of Pakistan, through this treaty, was assured, that efforts shall be made to keep the State situation normal • and that cultural and religious connections with Pakistan would be maintained. With the conclusion of this treaty a large scale Muslim massacre was planned to turn the Muslim majority into minority. The poor Muslim inhabitants were subjected to the mo t tyrannical rule. The people revolted against this mass killings of the innocent people and the despotic policies of the Hindu ruler. More than 2,37,000 innocent Muslims were executed and nearly 5,00,000 were made to leave their homes and seek shelter in Pakistan. The Hindu Maharaja could not control the uprising and made an appeal to the Indian Government to extend assistance to control the situation. The Indian Government put a condition and first asked for the accession of the valley with India. The Hindu ruler immediately complied and announced the accession of Jammu and Kashmir with India. The Indian Government at once landed its armed forces in Kashmir.

The Quaid-i­ Azam, the Governor General of Pakistan, ordered General Gracy, the then C-in-C of Pakistan Army, to attack Kashmir which he (Gen. Gracy) refused to carry out on the pretext that he could not take such action without the orders of the Supreme Commander of Indo-Pakistan armed forces. The people of Kashmir fought in a valiant manner against Indian forces. The volunteers from tribal areas entered Kashmir to help and assist their Muslim brethren and bravely fought by their side. Most of the area was liberated from the Indian occupation. As the Indian forces had entered Kashmir, the Pakistani borders were in danger. Pakistan had to move its army for the protection of its frontiers. A war between India and Pakistan began. Indian forces suffered heavy casualties and the Indian position in the valley aggravated. Pakistan got hold of important posts and places. 

India, in view of its bad military position in Jammu and Kashmir, made a frantic appeal to the UNO on 1st January, 1948. • India complained that a 1stan had committed aggression by sending its force to Jammu and Kashmir as the State had already acceded to India. Pakistan rejected India's plea and said that only the people of Kashmir had the right to decide the fate of valley. The Security Council passed two resolutions on 3rd August, 1948, -and 5th January, 1949, and urged the belligerent. States to stop fighting forthwith. It was decided by the UNO that there would be boundary line drawn under the supervision of UNCIP (United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan). Both the countries should withdraw to their previous positions so that the verdict of the people of Kashmir, for accession either to India or Pakistan, could be ascertained. Pakistan, in spite of her beer military position, accepted cease-fire because she wanted the settlement of issue in a peaceful manner.. I The Indian Government, on the other hand, did not want to lose Kashmir. Sheikh Abdullah, who by now, had been influenced by Gandhi and Nehru, also did-:-not want to see Kashmir going to Pakistan. In a Press statement in Delhi on October 21, 1947. Sheikh Abdullah said, "Due to the strategic position that Jammu and Kashmir holds, if this State joins Indian Dominion, Pakistan would be completely encircled. " By getting hold of Kashmir. India would be in a commanding position against Pakistan. India, therefore, immediately accepted the cease- fire. Establishment of Pakistan After the cease-fire India did not hold plebiscite in the valley of Kashmir as was decided by the resolutions of the UNO. The problem is still unsolved and has created a perilous situation in the region. There have been several efforts to solve the Kashmir problem which all proved futile because of the stubborn attitude of India. Many UN Commissions have visited Pakistan and India, to sort out solution of the problem, but so far there have been no success. The Kashmir problem could not be settled in spite of the best efforts of UNO.

India rejected UNO proposals about Kashmir m 1949. In 1950 a delegation under Sir Dickson came but Indian Government did not accept its recommendations.  In 1954 India held a so-called plebiscite in the valley under the supervision a bogus assembly was set up which confirmed Kashmir's accession with India Pakistan refused to accept these elections. The Kashmir problem is the main hurdle in the way of good relations between Pakistan and India. This problem caused armed conflict between India and Pakistan in September, 1965.